current account contract: Interpretation

cuenta corriente

What are the obligations of the bank in a current account contract?

The contrato de cuenta corriente es uno de los más utilizados y a la vez menos leídos.

However, when a problem occurs, their interpretation is essential for conflict resolution.

El Tribunal Supremo ha resuelto uno de estos casos en Sentencia de 12 May 2016: El cliente D. Elias claimed to BBVA for making an unauthorized transfer for him.

The Bank received in December 2005 a fax apparently signed by D. Elijah, ordenando una transferencia a favor de la sociedad Servicios Inmobiliarios Rocha Soto S.L. amounting to 117.249 euros. El Banco cargó dicho importe en la cuenta corriente del demandante.

That fax lacked letterhead, identification data did not indicate the payer and contained inaccuracies in the name and account number of the beneficiary were corrected by the entity itself to be this in turn, his client.

The account holder, He had not ordered such a transfer and not called to check operation.

The Court of First Instance number 46 de Madrid estimó la demanda because "The completion of the transfer without properly examining the accuracy of the order constitutes a case of negligence".

El Banco interpuso recurso y la Audiencia Provincial de Madrid lo estimó en sentencia de 4 November 2013, whereas the current account contract provided for the possibility of ordering transfers by fax and not aware he was particularly subject to any particular key or watchword agreed.

For Hearing, la transferencia venía precedida de una llamada telefónica según la testifical de los empleados del banco. Cuando el cliente residía en el extranjero, It was not strange practice, especialmente cuando se trataba de un cliente solvente y conocido. La firma tenía apariencia de corrección. La falta de una prueba pericial caligráfica, It should prejudice that should have provided the, ie the applicant.

The client filed an extraordinary appeal for procedural infringement and appeal to the Supreme Court.

The appeal for procedural infringement complaint misapplication of 217.2 LEC: The burden of proving the falsity of the signature can not fall on the plaintiff.

The Board considers the reason. La función de la carga de la prueba consiste en determinar las consecuencias de la falta de evidencias suficientes.

In this case, el demandante solicitó una prueba pericial caligráfica a cuya admisión se opuso la demandada. Y al tratarse de un fax, such evidence could not be conveniently practiced.

As for the appeal, la cuestión que se plantea es la interpretación del contrato de cuenta corriente.

La Sala no comparte el criterio de la Audiencia. On contrato de cuenta corriente del caso, although the possibility of transfers to be made by fax are not prohibited, the concurrence of two budgets required:

1-. There is agreement about the means of payment accepted.

2.- They have been established keys and security requirements that must accompany orders.

For the Board, fulfilled none of these two requirements. On contrato de cuenta corriente bancaria:

“el cercioramiento o comprobación de la veracidad de la firma del ordenante constituye un presupuesto de diligencia profesional exigible a la entidad bancaria con relación a sus obligaciones esenciales de gestión y custodia de los fondos depositados por el titular de la cuenta cuyo incumplimiento da lugar a la indemnización de daños y perjuicios conforme a lo dispuesto en los artículos 1101 and 1106 the Civil Code ".

Also, Article 255 del Código de Comercio impone al comisionista la obligación de consultar al comitente “en lo no previsto y prescrito expresamente”.

Client, before this transfer, only income and realized he had never done withdrawn and the fax was performed by an unusual medium and showed irregularities in the beneficiary's name and account number, without providing identification data of the payer,

Ultimately, the bank did not meet the required professional diligence in these cases.

Dismisses and fully confirms the judgment of the first instance, that declara incumplido el contrato de cuenta corriente y obliga al banco a la reintegración del importe con intereses y costas.

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