Guide to the division of the common thing
Splitting a common thing raises a number of both substantive and procedural issues.
The right to divide a common thing It is enshrined in Article 400 Civil Code:
“Ningún copropietario estará obligado a permanecer en la comunidad. Each of them may request at any time that divide the common thing ".
However, You may not be requested división de la cosa común cuando "To make it unfit for use prove it is intended" (article 401 Civil Code). This impossibility of division can be both physics (inability to obtain two houses by dividing a) as legal (for example, when the division of a solar leaves plots that do not have the minimum area to build, according to urban planning). En dichas situaciones, comes the economic division, selling the "common thing" and dividing the amount among commoners, as it provided for in Article 404 Civil Code.
The division of the common thing does not affect the rights of third parties thereon, so real (mortgage, easement or other rights), as personal (article 405 Civil Code).
In the absence of an agreement between the parties, or submission to the decision of an arbitrator (art. 402 C.C.), shall apply to the división de la cosa común, the rules of the division of inheritance (article 406 C.C.). The sentence will be executed by public auction of the common thing.
If one thing is indivisible or detracts much division, it may award one, prior agreement on the amount to be paid in cash to the other. But it is enough that one of the villagers ask for the sale at public auction, so that it is done (art. 1.062 of C. Civil).
Una vez vista la regulación del Código Civil relativa a la división de la cosa común, appropriate to revise the points where you can find pitfalls, from the perspective of jurisprudence recently relapse.
To the Supreme Court, (STS 30 April 2009):
“la acción de división (dividing common action) It is undisputed by the other participants, unconditional and imprescriptible, empowered to ask for the division of the thing, It is not a right that can be extinguished by its lack of exercise within a certain period, but a permanent faculty that always accompanies the community and should be understood that the duration (Judgment 5 June 1989)”.
Severability of the common thing
The jurisprudence is distinguishing between divisibilidad material o física y divisibilidad jurídica o económica: There are times that it can be physically divided but is not considered legally divisible, eg:
- Si el cost making material division is very high in proportion to the value of the common thing.
- If the division solar material, left parties that do not meet the minimum area to build (STS 15.12.2009).
- If the division of the common thing detracts good, so that the value parts, It does not reach the value of the undivided common thing.
- If the division leaves useless for use for the common good is intended.
En el caso de que se pretenda la venta de la cosa común en pública subasta, It is necessary to prove the indivisibility of the thing by raising demand, because divisibility is a question of fact which is free to the Judge.
Relationship to other procedures
The main difficulty arises on possibility of accumulation action division of the common thing with processes of separation or divorce.
In the oral proceedings, the Civil Code, in his article 437 section four, fourth point, expressly provides that “cualquiera de los cónyuges podrá ejercer simultáneamente la acción de división de la cosa común respecto de los bienes que tengan en comunidad ordinaria indivisa”.
However, You can not accumulate Action division of the common thing and liquidation of the matrimonial property regime.
Moreover, when the common thing is the only heritage property of spouses, no se debe acudir al proceso de liquidación del régimen económico sino que debe instarse directamente la acción de división de cosa común (SAP Barcelona section 12 of 19 December 2012).
Derecho de terceros sobre la cosa común
The division of the common thing does not affect the rights of third parties, as provided in Article 405 of C. Civil. El Tribunal Supremo lo ha confirmado entre otras, in its judgment of 27 June 2007.
It supports the action of division of the common thing with the attribution of use of the family home to one spouse.
As indicated in section SAP Ciudad Real 1 of 20 January 2016:
“la atribución del uso de la vivienda que fuera hogar familiar no impide el que se pueda disponer de la misma, while respecting that right ".
However, should be aware that when the right of use is granted on the basis of the common thing to be the residence of minor children, debe tener una limitación temporal y su mantenimiento ilimitado supondría un abuso de derecho. As indicated in section SAP Madrid 20 of 12 November 2015:
"That right does not have the same scope, when the children who remain in the company of a spouse who is credited with the use of housing are minors, when they are or come of age”.
No se puede solicitar en la demanda simultáneamente la Action division of the common thing y el cese inmediato de la ocupación del bien por parte de alguien que en éste tiene su residencia habitual. Esto conllevará la desestimación del desahucio y por tanto, the non-taxation of costs (SAP Palma de Mallorca section 4 of 19 January 2016).
However, if the right to use the common thing is not entered in the register, It will not affect the third party purchaser in good faith in the implementation process (SAP Coruna section 3 of 19 April 2013).
So the right mortgage refers, not alter the division and the estate maintain such real right.
The second paragraph of Article 400 Civil Code, prevé expresamente la validez del pacto de indivisión por tiempo determinado, not exceeding 10 years old. Therefore, si nos encontramos ante un bien indivisible materialmente, legally or by agreement of undivided commoners, It may be effected by the action of division of the common thing following the provision of Article 404 C.C., solicitando la división económica (public auction and price deal).
such operation, It would be respectful of the covenant of indivisibility of the commoners.
Procedures division of the common thing, usually they have a considerable amount, often treated to real estate. Thus, exquisite care is essential in these matters, given the magnitude that can reach the shores of the process.
Competence to hear complaints division corresponds to the common thing Courts of First Instance and not the Family.
Regarding territorial jurisdiction, to be considered real action on the farm, pertenece al Juzgado del place where the property is situated, en aplicación del fuero imperativo del artículo 52.1.1º de la LEC.
Por lo que a la legitimation both passive and active refers, It belongs to the co-owners of the common thing. No standing third, whether creditors of the commoners or even bearing a right of usufruct, pues no forman parte de la comunidad. However, It is not a peaceful question the need to call the dispute to third, so we must review the criteria of the relevant Provincial Court.
The fact that a commoner does not contribute to the maintenance costs of the common thing, It does not deprive it of its right to bring the action of division (SAP Malaga section 4 of 6 October 2008).
Respecto a la amount, It shall be determined by the market value of the property, al tiempo de presentarse la demanda. Later, once the award or agreed sale, we must be the actual value of the property.
Una vez decidido por el Juzgado que la cosa común será vendida mediante pública subasta, You can not perform a physical division or a private auction among commoners.
Will necessary to make an appraisal of the common thing to hold the auction, regardless of the amount that is allocated in the statement of claim.
Regarding the controversial issue of for costs, if the defendant acquiesces (although it has made response to demand without opposition) and the plaintiff has not made a preliminary court injunction, or bad faith is not appreciated, there will be no imposition thereof to any party (SAP Caceres section 1 of 15 January 2016, SAP Barcelona section 1 of 28 July 2015).
If a partial acquiescence occurs, before the preliminary hearing, that it becomes total and having a logical justification, the non-taxation of costs supported the defendant, provided there is no bad faith (SAP Madrid Section 13 of 16 November 2015).
As to procedural strategy, the accumulation division action commonplace, with the claim of a monetary amount, It may be dangerous, since the dismissal of the latter can lead to non-taxation of costs (SAP Zaragoza section 4 of 11 November 2015).
In the case of declaration of default of, subsequently accepted an agreement at the previous hearing, proceeds for costs the same (SAP Cartagena section 5 of 29 September 2015).
Ultimately, Given the amount of claims in which exercising Action division of the common thing, It is appropriate expert advice, a fin de que el cliente consiga sus objetivos y se eviten cuantiosas condenas en costas.