Multicurrency mortgage declared void in Burgos

hipoteca multidivisa

 

The Provincial Court of Burgos has confirmed the invalidity of the clauses of a multicurrency mortgage Bankinter sentence 5 April 2016.


Customers had hired an "Multicurrency loan" the 21 July 2008 por valor de 318.000 euros, amortized over 24 years old. El préstamo se convirtió a Swiss francs. Después de estar cinco años pagando el préstamo, owed more than at the beginning (342.000€).

The Court of First Instance No. 1 Burgos estimated demand and annulled error vitiates consent clauses multicurrency, forcing the bank to recalculate the mortgage loan using as a reference to Euribor plus a 0.60% as provided in the contract, persistiendo el resto de cláusulas que no fuesen incompatibles con lo ordenado y con imposición de costas a Bankinter.

Bankinter recurrió la sentencia ante la Provincial Court of Burgos.

Estas fueron las alegaciones del banco:

a) Expiration of action: It is rejected by the Chamber, in application of the doctrine of the Supreme Court expressed in the plenary Judgment 12 January 2015. The period begins to run (least) from knowledge of the error.

b) Confirmation of the contract: Customers have been religiously paying their dues and the bank, the contract would have been confirmed by their own actions. For the Board, payment of dues is not willing to "purify" the contract, but to prevent the damage that would be the default (read, application of very high default interest and early repayment of the loan). Therefore, the reason is rejected.

c) Deviations from the MiFID to multicurrency loan:

After reviewing the discrepancy between STS 30 June 2015 and the judgment of the ECJ 3 December 2015 (for TS is a "derivative financial instrument" and the CJEU is not), Chamber reaches the following conclusion:

"State law has to respect the minimum content of the Directive, but may have a wider scope, allowing the inclusion of other financial instruments that the directive does not include ".

Also, trae a colación la STJUE de 30 April 2014 (Case C-26/2013) that in a case of multicurrency loan declared unfair term lack of transparency and unilateralism in the application of exchange rates.

For the Board, in application of the doctrine of the ECJ, la exigencia de transparencia debe entenderse de manera extensiva. Una cláusula que permite al banco calcular las cuotas en función del precio de venta de la divisa aplicada por él mismo, eleva los gastos del servicio financiero a cargo del consumidor. Articles 3 and 5 Directive 93/13 y los puntos 1 letters "j" and "l" and 2 letters "b2 and" d "of the Annex to the same, otorgan una importancia esencial a la transparencia del mecanismo de conversión de la divisa extranjera, so that the consumer can anticipate what is really cost.

Also, Directive 2014/17 / EU 4 February 2014, (although not applicable to the case) It refers to loans in foreign currency indicating:

“(…) necessary to establish measures to ensure that consumers are aware of the risks they take and have the possibility to limit their exposure to exchange rate risk during the term of the credit ".

The Court states that:

"Apart from the application of MIFID, or transposition in the Securities Market Act in its wording by law 4/2007, there are some information duties incumbent upon banks to their customers "

As stated in the STS 20 January 2014, esta obligación es consecuencia del deber de actuar conforme a las exigencias de la buena fe (art. 7 C.C) and Contract Law (art. 1:201 of the Principles of European Contract Law). Y este deber, undertakes to evaluate the knowledge and financial customer experience and provide adequate information on fundamental aspects of the business, and especially its risks.

Este deber también se basa en el TRLGDCU, al ser los clientes consumidores (Arts. 12, 18.2, 59, 60 and 80).

También es aplicable la normativa sobre préstamos hipotecarios (Law 26/1988, IF they 5 May 1994 and Law 36/2003) en la que se impone a la entidad bancaria el deber de proporcionar una información adecuada y suficiente para que un cliente minorista comprenda con antelación a la firma, el alcance económico y jurídico de su contratación.

So things, the Doctrine of the Supreme Court is establishing (STS 840/2013) the breach of the duties of information can cause an error with annulling effect if this is essential and excusable.

The omission of information by the bank leads to presume the existence error.

In this case, los clientes no eran expertos financieros y carecían de experiencia especulativa. And el hecho de que fuesen universitarios (secondary teachers) no implica que fuesen conocedores de las características y riesgos de los préstamos hipotecarios multidivisa.

La Sala valora como prueba de su desconocimiento que nunca cambiasen de divisa, ni se hiciese comunicación alguna al respecto.

Is considered to el banco no cumplió con su deber de información. And the burden of proof of having informed weighed on the financial institution.

There was no binding offer or prospectus.

Last, el contrato de préstamo hipotecario multidivisa está redactado deficientemente, sin describir el producto adecuadamente. Indica que “la sustitución de la divisa utilizada no supondría la elevación del límite pactado inicialmente ni la reducción del riesgo en vigor”. No simulations were no additional information was given.

Y las testificales de los empleados de la entidad financiera deben ser valoradas teniendo en cuenta que son “empleados de la misma y directamente interesados en el asunto que nos ocupa”.

Ultimately, the lack of information caused a substantial and excusable error involved the partial annulment of the loan in all matters relating to the multicurrency clauses.

the recalculation of the loan is sorted using euribor more 0.60% and sentenced to the bank to pay the costs.

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