Guia sobre los delitos contra la propiedad intelectual e industrial

delitos propiedad industrial e intelectual

 

In this post we make a brief review of the regulation of crimes against intellectual property

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Regulation of crimes against intellectual property

Criminal protection of industrial property is placed under Title XIII entitled "Crimes against property and socio-economic order", and within the same, Chapter XI “Of the offenses relating to intellectual property, the market and consumers”, section 2 “Of the offenses relating to industrial property” featuring the arts. 273 A277 Penal Code recently reformed by LO 1/2015 of 30 March.

The reform has caused the LO 1/2015 It has not meant a substantial change in its regulation but has criminalized specific forms of offenses that carry penalties appropriate severity rigged.

One of the most important changes of this reform has been the elimination of so-called faults and that also affects those that were within the scope of delitos contra la propiedad intelectual e industrial.

Legally protected in crimes against intellectual property

The protege of these crimes according to the majority doctrine legal right is the exclusive right of use or exploitation covered by an industrial property title previously registered with the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office objects.

Within the criminal law which is punishable intrusion exclusivity enjoyed by the holder or assignee of the rights protected by industrial property, since registration gives you the exclusive right to prevent others from marketing identical products or identical or similar mark as create consumer confusion.

Legal nature

They are within crimes mere activity in which the crime is consummated by the mere realization of the typical behavior and is not required to cause a real deception on the consumer.

material object

It is everything that is covered by an industrial property title previously enrolled in the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office.

According to the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office the following are considered industrial property:

  • Invention, in which the patent recognizes only the right to use an invention in industry and trade offer and to sell products made with it.
  • Utility Models, that bring new profits to the product., ie they occur in previously invented products that a different application is attributed to that already possessed.
  • The industrial designs They give the holder an exclusive right, on the appearance of the whole or part of a product, resulting from the characteristics of the lines, contours, colors, form, texture or materials of the product itself or its ornamentation. The designs may be two- or three-dimensional.
  • The distinctive signs by trademarks and trade names registered. Mark is any sign capable of graphic representation which serves to distinguish in the market the goods or services of one undertaking from those of other consumer offering assurance about the identity or origin of a product or service.
  • The Topographies of semiconductor, It refers to the mechanisms of integrated circuits for electronic functions, as microprocessors or integrated cards.

Assets and liabilities subject

The perpetrator can be both natural and legal persons, including the registered owner itself when it acts overstepping the rights that have been granted.

The taxpayer may also be anyone whenever registered owner of an exclusive right of exploitation, either inventor, the assignee or transferee, since they are rights that can be transmitted vivos and mortis causa.

Subjective element

The Criminal Code determines the need to concur dolo for the criminal offense occurs. This fraud should encompass the knowledge that is a registered right, since in the opposite case it could be a type error

essential elements of the crime

  • The absence of consent of the owner of an exclusive right.
  • Registration law
  • Knowledge by the active subject of the existence of registration.
  • industrial or commercial purpose of the product. When the exclusive right is known by the author and still acts without consent for own use is atypical behavior.

typical behaviors

According to Article 273:

1. It shall be punished with imprisonment of six months to two years and fined 12 a 24 months that, for industrial or commercial purposes, without consent of the owner of a patent or utility model and informed registration, made, matter, possesses, used, provide or enter commercially objects covered by such rights.

2. The same penalties will be imposed which, Similarly, and for those purposes;, use or offer the use of a method object of a patent, or owns, offer, enter commercially, or use the product directly obtained by the patented process.

3. It is punishable by the same penalties that perform any of the acts described in the first paragraph of this article concurring similar circumstances in relation to protected third party in favor of a model or industrial or artistic design or topography of a semiconductor product objects.

And Article 274 the same legal body:

1. You shall be punished with penalties of one to four years in prison and a fine of twelve to twenty four months to, for industrial or commercial purposes, without consent of the owner of an industrial property right registered under trademark law and knowledge of the registry,

a) made, produced or imported products incorporating a distinctive sign identical or confusingly similar to that, in

b) offer, distribute, or marketing wholesale products incorporating a distinctive sign identical or confusingly similar to that, or store them for that purpose, in the case of the same or similar products, services or activities for which the industrial property right be registered.

2. Shall be punished with sentences of six months to three years in prison which, for industrial or commercial purposes, without consent of the owner of an industrial property right registered under trademark law and knowledge of the registry, offer, distributes or markets retail, or provides services or carries on business, incorporating a distinctive sign identical or confusingly that, in the case of the same or similar products, services or activities for which the industrial property right be registered.

The same penalty shall be imposed on anyone who reproduces or imitates a distinctive sign identical or confusingly similar to that for use for the commission of conduct sanctioned in this article.

3. Hawking or occasional sale of products referred to in the preceding paragraphs shall be punished by imprisonment of six months to two years.

However, attended the characteristics of the offender and the reduced amount of economic benefit obtained or could have been obtained, provided which none of the circumstances of Article 276, the judge may impose a fine of one to six months or work for the benefit of the community of thirty one sixty days.

4. shall be punished with penalties of one to three years in prison which, for agricultural or commercial purposes, without consent of the owner of a plant variety and informed registration, produce or reproduce, refurbishes overlooking the production or reproduction, offered for sale, sold or otherwise marketed, export or import, or holds for any of these purposes, plant propagating material of a protected plant variety under national legislation or the European Union on Plant Variety Protection.

It shall be punished with the same penalty who perform any of the acts described in the preceding paragraph using, under the name of a protected plant variety, material vegetal de reproducción o multiplicación que no pertenezca a tal variedad.

Por último el artículo 275 castiga conductas de utilización de la denominación de origen, estableciendo lo siguiente: Las mismas penas previstas en el artículo anterior se impondrán a quien intencionadamente y sin estar autorizado para ello, utilice en el tráfico económico una denominación de origen o una indicación geográfica representativa de una calidad determinada legalmente protegidas para distinguir los productos amparados por ellas, con conocimiento de esta protección.

aggravated felony

Article 276 Penal Code, prevé una serie de agravantes que aumentan la pena en dos años a 6 años de prisión, multa de dieciocho a treinta y seis meses e inhabilitación especial para el ejercicio de la profesión relacionada con el delito cometido, por un período de dos a cinco años, cuando concurra alguna de las siguientes circunstancias:

a) Que el beneficio obtenido o que se hubiera podido obtener posea especial trascendencia económica.

b) Que los hechos revistan especial gravedad, atendiendo al valor de los objetos producidos ilícitamente, distribuidos, comercializados u ofrecidos, o a la especial importancia de los perjuicios ocasionados.

c) Que el culpable perteneciere a una organización o asociación, incluso de carácter transitorio, que tuviese como finalidad la realización de actividades infractoras de derechos de propiedad industrial.

d) Que se utilice a menores de 18 años para cometer estos delitos.

Criminal liability of legal persons in offenses against intellectual property

Para los delitos tipificados en los arts. 274 a276 del CP:

  • Fine two- to fourfold of the benefit, o que se hubiere podido obtener, if the offense committed by the individual is planning a prison sentence of more than two years.
  • Fine of twice to three times the profit made, o que se hubiere podido obtener si el delito cometido por la persona física tiene prevista una pena de prisión de menos de dos años.

Para el delito de revelación de patente secreta del art. 277 CP:

  • Fine of two to five years, triple or quintuple the profit earned or that been able to obtain if the resulting number was higher, when the crime committed by the individual is planning a penalty of more than two years of imprisonment.
  • Fine of six months to two years, or to double the benefit obtained or that been able to obtain if the resulting number was higher, in other cases.

Also, podrán ser acordadas por el juez las medidas previstas en el art. 33 b) a g) Criminal Code, en atención a la necesidad de prevenir la continuidad de la actividad delictiva o sus efectos, sus consecuencias económicas y sociales, y especialmente los efectos para los trabajadores, así como el puesto que en la estructura de la persona jurídica ocupa la persona física u órgano que incumplió el deber de control, según lo previsto en el art. 66 bis del CP:

  1. Disolución de la persona jurídica. La disolución producirá la pérdida definitiva de su personalidad jurídica, así como la de su capacidad de actuar de cualquier modo en el tráfico jurídico, o llevar a cabo cualquier clase de actividad, aunque sea lícita.
  2. Suspensión de sus actividades por un plazo que no podrá exceder de cinco años.
  3. Clausura de sus locales y establecimientos por un plazo que no podrá exceder de cinco años.
  4. Prohibición de realizar en el futuro las actividades en cuyo ejercicio se haya cometido, favored or concealed the crime. This prohibition may be temporary or permanent.. If it were temporary, the term may not exceed fifteen years.
  5. Inhabilitación para obtener subvenciones y ayudas públicas, to contract with the public sector and to enjoy benefits and tax incentives or Social Security, for a term that may not exceed fifteen years.
  6. Intervención judicial total o parcial, for as long as it is established that it may not exceed five years, to safeguard the rights of workers or creditors. Cuando estas penas se impongan con una duración limitada, ésta no podrá exceder la duración máxima de la pena privativa de libertad prevista para el caso de que el delito fuera cometido por persona física, según prevé el art. 66 bis 2º del CP
  1. Precautionary Measures: a) La clausura temporal de los locales o establecimientos; b) La suspensión de las actividades sociales; c) Judicial intervention.

 

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