¿Cómo liberar al fiador en una ejecución hipotecaria?

fiador ejecucion hipotecaria

If foreclosure against the borrowing company, the guarantor may be released to the applicable consumer regulations

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It is often the case that secure loans parent companies of their children and the economic crisis have ended responding to such debts. We usually find the “mortgagor no debtor“: Parents put their home as collateral for children to get funding for your business. When the default and thus occurs Foreclosure, detents are doomed to loss of housing.

For the CJEU from The car of 14 December 2016 (Case C-534/15 “Dumitras”), el guarantor the guarantor debe be considered as a consumer you:

1.- It does not act in a professional activity.

2.- Not manager or shareholder or partner of the borrowing company.

Such a consumer allows review and if necessary, declaration of invalidity of unfair terms.

The declaration of invalidity of the clause floor, of default interest, advance of maturity or the usual disclaimers in mortgage (liquidity pact, issuing copies enforceable, the benefits of order, division and excussion, inter), They are highly relevant in foreclosure proceedings for nonpayment of the loan secured by the company.

In this entry, We collect some sentences provincial courts, estimating the enforcement of consumer sureties “of the family” of the employer and therefore, They allow an adequate defense of the same. However, we should note that this interpretation is not majority and in other provincial courts, The criterion is that consumer legislation does not apply in these cases.

Section 2 SAP Auto Cádiz 298/2017, of 14 November

“In this case, the borrowing entity is a commercial entity and receives the quantity for the loan to purchase a home, being mortgagor no debtor, Don Eliseo , father of the sole manager of the entity and the party whose place happens appellant, Don Ambrosio ; the mortgagor debtor not mentioned mortgage housing property, acquired well in advance of the date of conclusion of the loan so no evidence that the loan obtained for the acquisition of such housing but what does seem clear is that the debtor no mortgagee had no functional link with any borrowing company and their involvement in business was as an owner of the mortgaged property, which it was his residence, so it does not appear that his intervention that had to do with his professional activity.

It should be noted further that the date of the loan agreement runs, 25/06/2004 and 12/05/2006, date of extension of the mortgage loan, was in effect was the General Law for the Defense of Consumers and Users 1984, whose first article, available “2. For the purposes of this Act, consumers or users are natural or legal persons who acquire, They use or enjoy as final recipients, movable or immovable property, products, services, activities or functions, whatever public or private nature, individual or collective of those who produce, easy, supply or issue. 3. Not be considered consumers or users who without becoming final recipients, acquire, store, use or consume goods or services, in order to integrate them into production processes, transformation, marketing or provision to third parties”.

For no record cars that housing acquired by obtaining the loan had intended to be used for the development of any commercial activity or to be integrated into a marketing process because the borrowing entity nor was even an organization dedicated to housing activity.

For these reasons it must be concluded that the mortgagor is not debtor Don Eliseo, He not had in the loan runs consideration professional, thus it is a consumer and therefore, his son and heir, Don Ambrosio, appellant in this appeal, it occupies in the procedure the place of his predecessor, must be regarded consumer.

Conforme a lo expuesto, should be understood as part appellant argues that the loan has executed that runs consumer consideration.

(…)

As for the possible abusiveness of the interest rate established in a delay 18% Sixth stipulation in the contract, by application of the doctrine established by the Supreme Court ruling of 22/04/2015, applied to default interest mortgage loan concluded with consumers by sentence 3/06/2016, default interest referred to is clearly abusive.”

(….)

Applying the above doctrine to the present case, There is no doubt about the unfairness of interest for late payment established in the contract being much higher than the increase of two points on the agreed interest remuneratorio.

(…)

POSITIVE SIDE

(…)

– Declare that Don Ambrose in his status as heir to the mortgagor no debtor is a consumer mortgage loan on the deed concerted No. 915 of 25/06/2004 executed before Notary Don Pantaleon Garcia Aranda Castle and modified by writing No. 1632 of 12/05/2006 Don Antonio Notario from the Manuel Torres Dominguez.

– Declare the nullity of the clause soil contained in the stipulation Third Bis writing 25/06/2004 and the validity of the provision contained in the script fourth modification of the loan 12/05/2006.

-Abusiveness declare the nullity of the stipulation on interest on late payments contained in both deeds and loan modification, the amount borrowed must continue to accrue interest at the rate agreed remunerative with application of the clause floor, must continue the execution dispatched by the amount of euros 240.202'42 72.000 euros budgeted for interest and costs without prejudice to its subsequent liquidation.”

Section 5 SAP Auto Zaragoza 66/2018, of 19 January 2018

"EIGHTH. – Certainly Mr.. Ruperto, as CEO of a company and another administrator can not be regarded as a consumer. His usual occupation is managing a business for which offers its own heritage, as a guarantor. It has not taken to prove otherwise.

More doubts offers position his wife. Both it and her husband applies the doctrine contained in the A. T.J.U.E. 19-November-2015 (Room Friday, C-74/15, Dumitru's toil toil Vs Ileana. Sampaolo Romania Commercial Bank S.A.).

And initially it was thought that the guarantor of a commercial operation was going to be a merchant in their qualification to the effect of applying specific rules or consumer (S.A.P., Alicante, secc.8ª, 19-6-2014), said A.T.J.U.E. It comes to distinguishing.

Uses the concept of functional link. Considers that the legal bond business is autonomous from the entrenched business. It's related, but it is between persons other than those of the host contract. And being the concept of “consumer” of an objective, must assess the specific business relationship. If the guarantor acts as a professional or business or has a functional link with this operation, namely, business management or a significant stake in its share capital.

NINETH.- Is illuminating in this regard the recent S.T.S. 594/17, 7-November. In similar case (not the same) to which we now occupies, forwards in terms of the aforementioned functional link to the arts. 6 and 7 C.com., in relation to the 1365-2 C.Civil. course, in a case of marital community property system (gananciales). So that the consent of the spouse of the employer for the result of their businesses remain common property affections, It is integrated with the responsibility of marital property, that respond directly debts contracted in the ordinary exercise of the profession, art or craft of one spouse.

However, en el caso nos ocupa los esposos estaban en régimen de separación de bienes prácticamente desde que contrajeron matrimonio. Este tuvo lugar el 14-9-1996 y los capítulos el 3-1-1997, habiéndose comprado la vivienda objeto de reiteradas garantías hipotecarias el 2-12-1997.

(…)

UNDECIMO.- But, above all, porque a través de la vía indirecta de la responsabilidad de los bienes de la esposa garante, lo que se trata de determinar en si ostenta o no la vinculación funcional necesaria para ser tratada como empresaria (en cuanto que fiadora de una operación mercantil).

Well, con estos datos no se puede atribuir a la hipotecante la condición de no consumidora. Cierto que en las operaciones refinanciadas (préstamo ICO de 2012 y póliza de crédito) la Sra. Amparo no era prestataria, sólo garante; mientras que en el préstamo refinanciado actúa como prestataria, deudora e hipotecante. Mas ello no añade un vínculo funcional diferente al que tenía como exclusivamente garante, puesto que el préstamo actual de 2013 tiene la finalidad de refinanciar aquellas deudas de la mercantil de su esposo y levantar la carga hipotecaria aún subsistente de la compra de la vivienda en 1997 (folios 10 vto, 11 vto del préstamo de 9-9-2013). Por lo que en ambas condiciones su vinculación funcional con la operación propiamente mercantil sigue siendo la misma. Namely, ajena al negocio del que dimana la deuda comercial.

Por lo que sí le será aplicable la doctrina relativa a la Directiva 93/13 CEE y demás normativa de consumo.

DUODECIMO.- Esto debería permitirnos entrar a resolver las cuestiones planteadas en la oposición a la ejecución. Aunque sólo respecto a la que ostenta la condición de consumidora que, moreover, es la hipotecante no deudora.

Section 6 SAP Oviedo Auto 20/2018, of 9 March

Thus, desaparecida la vinculación inspirada en el carácter mercantil de la obligación principal, necessary replantearse si los fiadores actuaban con un propósito ajeno a su actividad profesional y carecían de vínculos funcionales con la citada sociedad.

In that sense, la escritura de préstamo establece que se concertaba con la empresa Cristalería Daro S.A., e interviene D. Valeriano, además de por sí, (como fiador), en su calidad de administrador, actuando en nombre y representación de la sociedad.

Los cónyuges D. Eusebio y Dña. María Inmaculada, retired housewife, Ms.. Patricia y D. Luis Antonio, garantizan y afianzan solidariamente con Cristalerías Daro S.L. al Banco Sabadell el cumplimiento de todas y cada una de las obligaciones asumidas por la parte prestataria, constituyéndose en fiadores solidarios y con renuncia expresa a los beneficios de orden, excusión y división.

No aparece en los autos que Dña. María Inmaculada ni D. Eusebio ostenten cargo alguno ni sea socios de la referida entidad, su intervención es en nombre propio y como propietarios de la finca hipotecada. Siendo jubilado y ama de casa respectivamente, tal como hacen constar en la misma, condición y circunstancias que no han sido desvirtuadas de adverso.

No consta tampoco que tengan vinculación funcional alguna con la misma.

Accordingly, por las razones expuestas, se confirma el criterio de instancia por el que se otorga la condición de consumidores a los ejecutados en el contrato de préstamo. So that, al ser consumidores, procedía realizar los controles de transparencia y abusividad respecto de la cláusula controvertida.

CUARTO.- Acreditada la condición de consumidores de los ejecutados y la aplicación de las normas tuitivas de protección de consumidores y usuarios.

El magistrado de instancia consideró la cláusula en cuestión abusiva.

(…)

La falta de discriminación de la cláusula, su genérico contenido sin atender si el incumplimiento es grave en atención a la cuantía y duración del préstamo, se advierte como manifiestamente desproporcionado y, accordingly, abusivo según lo dispuesto en el artículo 85.4, 87 and 88 the Royal Decree 1/2007 and Article 3 de la Directiva 93/13.

Section 5 SAP Auto Zaragoza 32/2017, of 13 January 2017

DÉCIMO.- CONSUMIDORA.- Una vez resuelta la cuestión atinente a los dos motivos del recurso, sin que tuvieran relación especifica con la condición de consumidora o no de la demandada en ejecución, procede analizar, even ex officio, si aquélla es consumidora y, in that case, si hay cláusulas abusivas en el-préstamo hipotecario.

De la prueba practicada en esta segunda instancia» así como de las manifestaciones de las partes a este respecto, se puede concluir que la hipotecante no deudora ostenta la condición de consumidora.

Este Tribunal ya se ha pronunciado respecto a situaciones similares (fiadora, mortgagor no debtor, garante) in which el garante del empresario prestatario no tiene que quedar necesariamente excluido de su condición de consumidor.

(…)

DECIMOSEGUNDO.- Este es el caso que nos ocupa. Ninguna relación ni directa ni funcional tiene la hipotecante con la sociedad prestataria, por lo que procederá aplicarle el examen de oficio de la posible abusividad de las cláusulas del préstamo hipotecario.

DECIMOTERCERO.- Cláusulas abusivas.-

Clause floor, que ha servido para determinar la liquidación de la deuda, no supera el control de transparencia o comprensibilidad real, al estar incluida entre otras cláusulas relativas al interés o precio del préstamo, sin que exista una llamada especial sobre un elemento crucial en la determinación del mismo, que -en definitiva- pasa a convertir un interés variable en un fijo si aquél baja del 5%. Baste a tal efecto con remitirnos a la STS. 9-5-2013. But, más aún -respecto a sus efectos- a la reciente STJUE. of 21-12-2016. Lo que supondría la nulidad de la citada cláusula y la eficacia dedicha nulidad desde su inicio. Lo que supondría el recálculo de la deuda con la minoración correspondiente.

Finally, queremos insistir en que este criterio, en tanto no se pronuncie el Tribunal Supremo, no es unívoco entre todas las audiencias provinciales y habrá que analizar cuidadosamente cada caso para ver su viabilidad.

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